Re The Army’s Germ Warfare Against Civilians….
“Pentagon To Gas Crystal City Residents Substance is harmless, assures newspaper, but terror paranoia fearmongering is contagious”
The above quote is from the article next, below.
It rang a bell for me of something 60 Minutes ran maybe some 20 years or so ago about the mlitary gassing experiments in San Francisco; and that it was both unannounced and unexplained afterwrards. I recall that they reported many people were harmed and it was never determined till many, many years later what the cause and circumstances of their ailments were.
But now is the “information age” so-called, right? So I googled this topic and came up with a couple good background references on this sort of thing.
I have listed below these articles dealing with what I mention above re San Francisco, etc. And, the last article relating to the history of such “tests.”
Have a nice day, folks.
Don’t Worry – Be Happy!
Pentagon To Gas Crystal City Residents
Substance is harmless, assures newspaper, but terror paranoia fearmongering is contagious
Paul Joseph Watson
Monday, March 3, 2008
The Pentagon has assured residents of Crystal City, Virginia, that the gases they will release downtown on Thursday are completely harmless, while on the other hand secretly hoping that the fearmongering about imminent biological terror attacks the tests are set to generate is contagious.
“The Pentagon is scheduled to release an odorless, invisible, and yes, harmless, gases into the city Thursday to test how quickly they spread through buildings, officials said.”
“The test is part of the military’s national security preparation for the capital area,” reports The Examiner.
The Pentagon will release perfluorocarbon tracers as well as sulfur hexafluoride amongst the general public without their consent, a practice that would otherwise be illegal in a free society.
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November 29, 1988
The Army’s Germ Warfare Against Civilians
By LEONARD A. COLE; LEONARD A. COLE, FACULTY ASSOCIATE IN THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY PROGRAM AT RUTGERS UNIVERSITY IN NEWARK, N.J., IS AUTHOR OF A BOOK ON THE ARMY‘S GERM WARFARE TESTS IN UNITED STATES CITIES.
LEAD: The Army’s biological warfare program has drawn heavy criticism in recent months.
The Army’s biological warfare program has drawn heavy criticism in recent months.
Habitually unsafe laboratory practices, as well as plans to ship dangerous biological materials by mail, have both come under fire. Yet, not enough has been said about an activity that is just as alarming – germ warfare experimentation in which bacterial agents are sprayed directly into the air.
Since 1979, the Army has conducted more than 170 open air tests at Dugway Proving Ground, 70 miles from Salt Lake City, as part of an expanded biological warfare program. Moreover, Army officials steadfastly assert their right to test outdoors anywhere in the country, including in urban areas. The Pentagon insists -despite a pile of contrary evidence -that the tests are harmless.
The Army admits it is releasing a bacteria called Bacillus subtilis in Utah ”from time to time” to simulate biological warfare attacks with the more lethal Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax. Other bacteria, including Serratia marcescens, have also been used there in open air tests.
These bacteria are the same ”simulants” that were sprayed in cities during the 1950′s and 1960′s to see how well they could spread and survive. Hundreds of mock attacks were conducted, including the release of bacteria during peak travel hours in New York City’s subway system and in the main terminal of Washington’s National Airport.
In the late 1970′s, when the tests became public knowledge, the Army insisted that they were harmless. But in 1950, one San Franciscan died and others became ill from urinary tract and heart infections after the Army sprayed Serratia marcescens on the city.
Unaware of the Army’s test, doctors in San Francisco wrote about the unusual Serratia infections in a medical journal. They had never before encountered such an outbreak. Although the infections began three days after the spraying, the Army decided that the timing was ”apparently coincidental” and that testing should continue. Neither then nor in later tests has the Army monitored the health of the people exposed.
Pentagon spokesmen testified at a Senate hearing in 1977 that open air tests were no longer taking place but that they would be resumed if the Army felt the need. It is this newly felt need that is making Utah residents, among others restless. Although Bacillus subtilis is not as dangerous as some other micro-organisms, it can cause infections and, among the very old or young and people weakened by other conditions, fatalities. The Army’s denial of risk is simply not supportable.
Stranger still is the remark by an Army public affairs officer that Bacillus subtilis is not a ”genuine bacteriological agent.” Rather, she said, it is merely a simulant that ”mimics characteristics of biological material.”
The suggestion that any bacteria are not biological material is Orwellian newspeak. Yet, it serves a purpose. A 1969 Federal law holds that the military must notify local civilian officials when tests might expose people to biological or chemical agents.
And this could easily happen. Bacteria sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground, for example, could float over the fence – as nerve gas released there in 1968 did, killing 6,000 sheep 20 miles away. Yet, county health authorities near Dugway say they have never been notified about the spraying of biological agents.
Most disturbing is the Army’s claim of a right to test whenever and wherever it thinks necessary. A retired major general, William M. Creasy, commander of the testing program in the 50′s and 60′s, testified at a court trial in 1981 that the public was kept in the dark to avoid panic. Testing in cities was necessary, he said, because biological warfare agents are ”designed to work against people, and you have to test them in the kind of place where people live and work.”
Some may doubt that open air testing with bacteria should take place at all. But if it does, the public has a right to know what bacteria are being used, when and where. No matter how safe the Pentagon thinks its tests are, it should not use people as guinea pigs without their knowledge or consent.
A History Of US Secret
1931 Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.
1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.
1935 The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken black populations.
1940 Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to
combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.
1942 Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.
1943 In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.
1944 U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.
1945 Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States.
1945 “Program F” is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.
1946 Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word “experiments” to “investigations” or “observations” whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.
1947 Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.
1947 The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.
1950 Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates.
1950 I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.
1951 Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.
1953 U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.
1953 Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.
1953 CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.
1955 The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.
1955 Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.
1956 U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.
1958 LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.
1960 The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.
1965 Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs.
1965 Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.
1966 CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.
1966 U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.
1967 CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons.
1968 CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C.
1969 Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.
1970 Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army’s top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.
1970 United States intensifies its development of “ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA.
1975 The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).
1977 Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.
1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.
1981 First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine
1985 According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.
1986 According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.
1986 A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing vaccines.
1987 Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.
1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.
1994 With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.
1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War .
1995 U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research.
1995 Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.
1996 Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.
1997 Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.
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