Roger Roots, Are Cops Constitutional? Police As A Standing army, Etc,

Seton Hall Constitutional L.J. 2001, 685

ARE COPS CONSTITUTIONAL?

Roger Roots*

ABSTRACT

Police work is often lionized by jurists and scholars who claim to employ “textualist” and “originalist” methods of constitutional interpretation. Yet professional police were unknown to the United States in 1789, and first appeared in America almost a half-century after the Constitution’s ratification. The Framers contemplated law enforcement as the duty of mostly private citizens, along with a few constables and sheriffs who could be called upon when necessary. This article marshals extensive historical and legal evidence to show that modern policing is in many ways inconsistent with the original intent of America’s founding documents. The author argues that the growth of modern policing has substantially empowered the state in a way the Framers would regard as abhorrent to their foremost principles.

PART I

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….686

THE CONSTITUTIONAL TEXT……………………………………….688

PRIVATE PROSECUTORS…………………………………………….689

LAW ENFORCEMENT AS A UNIVERSAL…………………………..692

POLICE AS SOCIAL WORKERS………………………………………695

THE WAR ON CRIME………………………………………………….696

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISTINCTIONS…………………………..698

RESISTING ARREST……………………………………………………701

THE SAFETY OF THE POLICE PROFESSION……………………….711

PROFESSIONALISM?………………………………………………….713

DNA EVIDENCE ILLUSTRATES FALLIBILITY OF POLICE……..716

COPS NOT COST-EFFECTIVE DETERRENT………………………..721

PART II

POLICE AS A STANDING ARMY…………………………………….722

THE SECOND AMENDMENT……..725

THE THIRD AMENDMENT……………………………………………727

THE RIGHT TO BE LEFT ALONE…………………………………….728

THE FOURTH AMENDMENT…………………………………………729

WARRANTS A FLOOR, NOT A CEILING……………………………733

PRIVATE PERSONS AND THE FOURTH AMENDMENT…………..734

ORIGINALISTS CALL FOR CIVIL DAMAGES………………………739

DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNITIES……………………………………743

THE LOSS OF PROBABLE CAUSE, AND THE ONSET OF PROBABLE SUSPICION…………………………………………744

POLICE AND THE “AUTOMOBILE EXCEPTION“………………….745

ONE EXCEPTION: THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE?………………….747

THE FIFTH AMENDMENT…………………………………………….751

DUE PROCESS………………………………………………………….752

ENTRAPMENT………………………………………………………….754

CONCLUSION……………………………..757

PART I

INTRODUCTION

via Roger Roots, Are Cops Constitutional?.

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About Gunny G

GnySgt USMC (Ret.) 1952--'72 PC: History, Poly-Tiks, Military, Stories, Controversial, Unusual, Humorous, etc.... "Simplify...y'know!"
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2 Responses to Roger Roots, Are Cops Constitutional? Police As A Standing army, Etc,

  1. Pingback: Cop Types. . . by Eric Peters « ~ BLOGGER.GUNNY.G.1984+. ~ (BLOG & EMAIL)

  2. Pingback: Roger Roots, Are Cops Constitutional? « ~ BLOGGER.GUNNY.G.1984+. ~ (BLOG & EMAIL)

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