The deep state (Turkish: derin devlet) is alleged to be a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services (domestic and foreign), Turkish military, security, judiciary, and mafia. The notion of deep state is similar to that of a “state within the state”. For those who believe in its existence, the political agenda of the deep state involves an allegiance to nationalism, corporatism, and state interests.
Violence and other means of pressure have historically been employed in a largely covert manner to manipulate political and economic elites and ensure specific interests are met within the seemingly democratic framework of the political landscape. Former president Süleyman Demirel says that the outlook and behavior of the (predominantly military) elites who constitute the deep state, and work to uphold national interests, are shaped by an entrenched belief, dating to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, that the country is always “on the brink”.[
5]The ideology of the deep state is seen by leftists as being anti-worker or ultra-nationalist; by Islamists as being anti-Islamic and secularist; by ethnic Kurds as being anti-Kurdish, and by liberal democrats as anti-democratic and anti-liberal. As pointed out by former prime minister Bülent Ecevit, the diversity of opinion reflects a disagreement over what constitutes the deep state. One explanation is that the “deep state” is not an alliance, but the sum of several groups that antagonistically work behind the scenes, each in pursuit of its own agenda.
Another explanation refutes the reduction of the deep state to an interest network and defines it as
a type of domination based on the high military autonomy levels that enable the security apparatus to disrupt formal democratic institutions (in the foreground) by employing a sui generis repertoire of informal institutions (in the background), i.e. putsch threat, autocratic cliques, mafia, organized crime and corruption. Rumours of the deep state have been widespread in Turkey since Ecevit’s term as prime minister in the 1970s, after his revelation of the existence of a Turkish counterpart to Italy’s Operation Gladio, the “Counter-Guerrilla”. Many Turks, including elected politicians, have stated their belief that the “deep state” exists.More recently, the term “deep state” has been used to describe politics in other nations including Egypt and the United States.……??????????????????